Apparent Differences in Xylazine, Ketamine, and Butorphanol Pharmacokinetics Linked with Pain Associated with Dehorning and Castration
Keywords:castration, dehorning, pain management, peripheral vasoconstriction, heart rate, pharmacokinetics, sedative-analgesics
Management of pain following dehorning and castration is a significant challenge for veterinarians. Physiological effects such as peripheral vasoconstriction and increased heart rate are associated with pain and distress. These effects may alter the pharmacokinetics of parenterally administered sedative-analgesics.