Pharmacokinetics and anti-inflammatory effects of intravenous and transdermal flunixin meglumine in healthy goats
Keywords:Flunixin meglumine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, goats, drug labelling, NSAIDs, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics
Flunixin meglumine is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for its antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties in multiple mammalian species. In the United States (US), cattle are the only food-producing ruminant species that have an approved flunixin meglumine label. A new transdermal (TD) formulation of flunixin meglumine has been developed for use in cattle and has recently been released for use in cattle in the US. Selection of drugs for use in goats, in the US, is problematic due to the paucity of labeled products. More specifically, there are no NSAIDs labeled for use in goats in the US. Dosing, routes of administration, and indications for use of NSAIDs are extrapolated from cattle. Understanding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of NSAIDs in goats is critical to minimizing negative side effects of the drugs and mitigating tissue residues to ensure a safe food supply. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic properties and anti-inflammatory effects of intravenous and transdermal flunixin meglumine in healthy goats.